Planet Earth isn’t at rest, but continuously moves through space.
The Earth rotates on its axis, spinning a full 360° with each passing day.
That translates into an equatorial speed of ~1700 km/hr, dropping lower with increasing latitudes.
Meanwhile, the Earth revolves around the Sun, with speeds ranging from 29.29 km/s to 30.29 km/s.
Early January’s perihelion causes the fastest motions, while July’s aphelion yields the slowest.
Atop that, the entire Solar System travels around the Milky Way.
Our heliocentric speed of 200-220 km/s is inclined ~60° to the plane of the planets.
However, our motion isn’t vortical, but a simple sum of these velocities.
On grander scales, the Milky Way and Andromeda travel towards each other at 109 km/s.
Attractive clumps and repulsive underdense regions both tug on our Local Group.
Combined, we move 627 ± 22 km/s relative to the cosmic average.
However, the Big Bang’s leftover photons offer a cosmically unique rest frame.
The Sun moves at a cumulative 368 km/s relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB).
An inherent uncertainty of ± 2 km/s comes from not knowing the intrinsic CMB dipole’s magnitude.
Being confined to the Milky Way, we can only dream of making such measurements.
Mostly Mute Monday tells an astronomical story in images, visuals, and no more than 200 words. Talk less; smile more.